Co-TiO2 Nanoparticles as the Reinforcement for Fe Soft Magnetic Composites with Enhanced Mechanical and Magnetic Properties via Pulse Electrodeposition

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


This study is an attempt to produce surface nanocrystalline composite of Fe-Co-TiO2 at various current densities in the range of 20 to 50 mA/cm2 via pulse electrodeposition method. The prepared composites were characterized by field emission scanning microscope (FESEM), electron dispersive spectrum (EDS), Vickers microhardness, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and x- ray diffraction techniques (XRD). The results showed that the formation of cauliflower morphology was preferred at lower current densities. Moreover, the higher current densities enhanced the Fe content and at the same time diminished the Co and TiO2 contents of prepared surface composites. XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of combinations of BCC (as dominant) and FCC phases. Higher current density enhanced the saturation magnetization and decreased lower coercivity due to the higher Fe content and the reduction of TiO2 nanoparticles in coatings. In addition, the lowest coercivity and highest saturation magnetization were gained at 50 mA/cm2, while, the maximum microhardness obtained at 30 mA/cm2.


  1. Liu, W., Ou, S., Chang, Y., Chen, Y., Liang, Y., Chang, C., Chu, C., Wu, T., "Magnetic properties, adhesive characteristics, and optical properties of Co40Fe40W20 films ", Surface Engineering, Vol. 36, (2020), 1-8, DOI: 10.1080/02670844.2020.1753398.
  2. Maliar, T., Cesiulis, H., Podlaha, EJ., "Coupled Electrodeposition of Fe–Co–W Alloys: Thin Films and Nanowires", Frontiers in Chemistry, Vol. 7, (2019), 542, DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2019.00542.
  3. Kołodziej, M., Śniadecki, Z., Musiał, A., Pierunek, N., Ivanisenko, Y., Muszyński, A., Idzikowski, B., "Structural transformations and magnetic properties of plastically deformed FeNi-based alloys synthesized from meteoritic matter", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 502, (2020), 166577, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2020.166577.
  4. Lu, W., Jia, M., Ling, M., Xu, Y., Shi, J., Fang, X., Song, Y., Li, X., "Phase evolution and magnetic properties of FeCo films electrodeposited at different temperatures", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 637, (2015), 552-556, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.03.036.
  5. Toghraei, M., Siadati, H., "Electrodeposited Co-Pi Catalyst on α-Fe2O3 Photoanode for Water-Splitting Applications", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 31, No. 12, (2018), 2085-2091, DOI: 10.5829/ije.2018.31.12c.13.
  6. Sajjadnejad, M., Omidvar, H., Javanbakht, M., "Influence of pulse operational parameters on electrodeposition, morphology and microstructure of Ni/nanodiamond composite coatings", International Journal of Electrochemical Science, Vol. 12, (2017), 3635-3651, DOI: 10.20964/2017.05.52.
  7. Pashai, E., Najafpour, G. D., Jahanshahi, M., Rahimnejad, M., "Highly Sensitive Amperometric Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles Polyaniline Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite for Detection of Nitric Oxide", International Journal of Engineering, Transaction B: Applications, Vol. 31, No. 2, (2018), 188-195, DOI: 10.5829/ije.2018.31.02b.01.
  8. Arjmand, S., Khayati, G., Akbari, G., "Al/Ti5Si3-Al3Ti composite prepared via in-situ surface coating of Ti using tungsten inert gas welding", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 808, (2019), 151739, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.151739.
  9. Sistaninia, M., Doostmohammadi, H., Raiszadeh, R., “Formation Mechanisms and Microstructure Characterization of Al/Al3Ni In-situ Composite by Compound Casting”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 50, (2019), 3020–3026, DOI: 10.1007/s11663-019-01682-1.
  10. Adineh, M., Doostmohammadi, H., "Microstructure, mechanical properties and machinability of Cu–Zn–Mg and Cu–Zn–Sb brass alloys", Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 35, No. 12, (2019), 1504-1514, DOI: 10.1080/02670836.2019.1630089.
  11. Yousefi, E., Sharafi, S., Irannejad, A., "The structural, magnetic, and tribological properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Ni permalloy and Fe-Ni-TiO2 composite coatings produced by pulse electro co-deposition", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 753, (2018), 308-319, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.04.232.
  12. Khayati, G.R., Janghorban, K., "Preparation of nanostructure silver powders by mechanical decomposing and mechanochemical reduction of silver oxide", Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China,Vol. 23, (2013), 1520-1524, DOI: 10.1016/S1003-6326(13)62625-4.
  13. Ghaferi, Z., Sharafi, S., Bahrololoom, M., "The role of electrolyte pH on phase evolution and magnetic properties of CoFeW codeposited films", Applied Surface Science, Vol. 375, (2016), 35-41, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.03.063.
  14. Yoosefan, F., Ashrafi, A., Monir vaghefi, S., Constantin, I., "Synthesis of CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloy Thin Films by Pulse Electrodeposition: Part 1: Effect of Pulse Electrodeposition Parameters", Metals and Materials International, Vol. 26, (2019), 1262-1269, DOI: 10.1007/s12540-019-00404-1.
  15. Barati Darband, Gh., Aliofkhazraei, M., Sabour Rouhaghdam, A., "Facile electrodeposition of ternary Ni-Fe-Co alloy nanostructure as a binder free, cost-effective and durable electrocatalyst for high-performance overall water splitting", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 547, (2019), 407-420, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.03.098.
  16. Saebnoori, E., Vali, I., Yousefpour, M., "Surface Activation of Ni-Ti Alloy by Using Electrochemical Process for Biomimetic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Coating", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 27, No. 10, (2014), 1627-1634, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2014.27.10a.17.
  17. Chen, M., Lan, L., Shi, X., Yang, H., Zhang, M., Qiao, J., "The tribological properties of Al0.6CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy with the σ phase precipitation at elevated temperature ", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 777, (2019), 180-189, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.10.393.
  18. Torabinejad, V., Aliofkhazraei, M., Assareh, S., Allahyarzadeh, M., Rouhaghdam, A.S., "Electrodeposition of Ni-Fe alloys, composites, and nano coatings–A review", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 691, (2017), 841-859, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.08.329.
  19. Khazaei, M., Sarvestani, E., and Khayati, G., "Modeling and optimization of chemical composition of nano/amorphous Fea.Nib.Nbc.Zrd alloy prepared via high-energy ball milling with enhanced soft magnetic properties; A mixture design approach", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 841, (2020), 155646, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.155646.
  20. Lim, D., Ku, B., Seo, D., Lim, C., Oh, E., Shim, S., Baeck, S., "Pulse-reverse electroplating of chromium from Sargent baths: Influence of anodic time on physical and electrochemical properties of electroplated Cr ", International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Vol. 89, , (2020), 105213, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2020.105213.
  21. Saad, S., Boumerzoug, Z., Helbert, A.L., Brisset, F., Baudin, T., "Effect of TiO2-Nanoparticles on Ni Electrodeposition on Copper Wire", Metals, Vol. 10, (2020), 406, DOI: 10.3390/met10030406.
  22. Wang, Y., Gao, W., He, Z., Zhang, S., Yin, L., "Improved mechanical properties of Cu–Sn–Zn–TiO2 coatings", International Journal of Modern Physics B, Vol. 34, No. 01, (2020), 2040039, DOI: 10.1142/S0217979220400391.
  23. Yar-Mukhamedova, G., Ved’, M., Yermolenko, I., Sakhnenko, N., Karakurkchi, A., Kemelzhanova, A., "Effect of Electrodeposition Parameters on the Composition and Surface Topography of Nanostructured Coatings by Tungsten with Iron and Cobalt", Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1, (2020), 19-25, DOI: 10.18321/ectj926.
  24. Ved’, M., Sakhnenko, N., Yermolenko, I., Yar-Mukhamedova, G., Atchibayev, R., "Composition and Corrosion Behavior of Iron-Cobalt-Tungsten", Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2, (2018), 145-152, DOI: 10.18321/ectj697.
  25. Seyedraoufi, Z., Mirdamadi, Sh., Rastegari, S.,  "Electrodeposition of Nano Hydroxyapatite Coating on Biodegradable Mg-Zn Scaffold", International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 6, (2014), 939-944, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2014.27.06c.12.
  26. Chunyang, M., Danqiong, Z., Zhipeng, M., "Effects of duty cycle and pulse frequency on microstructures and properties of electrodeposited Ni–Co–SiC nanocoatings", Ceramics International, Vol. 46, (2020), 12128-12137, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.01.258.
  27. Yousefi, E., Irannejad, A., Sharafi, S., "Electrodeposition and characterization of nanocrystalline Fe−Ni−Cr alloy coatings synthesized via pulse current method", Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 29, (2019), 2591-2603, DOI: 10.1016/S1003-6326(19)65166-6.