The Effect of Speed Humps on Highways Pavement Condition

Document Type : Original Article


Roads and Transport Department, College of Engineering, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq


Speed humps used as a tool of traffic calming technique that applied to force drivers to reduce their vehicle’ speeds at some locations. For developed countries, the implementations of speed humps are often used within residential areas as well as at locations of schools crossing.  For developing countries (e.g. Iraq), speed humps are used even at urban and urban highways.   This paper investigates the effect of applying such speed humps on pavement condition index (PCI).  For the purpose of this study, ten urban and rural highway sites that paved by asphalt concrete have been selected from Al-Diwaniyah city, Iraq. Each site has been divided to sections before and after the humps.  Each section has been surveyed to record the distress types used in calculations the values of PCI.  It has been noticed that the rutting distress is the dominant type for sections just before the humps.  The PCI values were significantly lower at sections near the humps compared with the faraway sections.  In addition, the effect of speed humps on the PCI values can be neglected at urban highways where minimal trucks used these highways.  The results of the paper suggested that an attention should be provided to identify reasonable warrants for installing of speed humps on flexible highway pavements.


1. Jateikienė, L., Andriejauskas, T., Lingytė, I. and Jasiūnienė, V.,
“Impact assessment of speed calming measures on road safety”,
Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 14, (2016), 4228-4236.  

2. Al-Obaedi, J., “Simulating the Effect of Speed Humps on the UTurn
Traffic”, International Journal of Engineering,
Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 32, No. 12, (2019), 1773-1780.  
3. Elvik, R., Hoye, A., Vaa, T., Sorensen, M., “The Handbook of
Road Safety Measures Second Edition”, (2009) Emerald Group
Publishing Limited, Bingley. 
4. Chen, L., Chen, C., Ewing, R., McKnight, E.M., Srinivasan, R.,
Roe, M., “Safety countermeasures and crash reduction in New
York City-Experience and lessons learned”. Accident Analysis
and Prevention, Vol. 50, (2013), 312-322. 
5. Čygaitė, L., Lingytė, I., Strumskys, M., “Analysis of Vertical
Traffic Calming Measures in Impacts on Road Safety and
Environment in Lithuania State Roads”, The 9
Conference “Environmental Engineering”, (2014), Vilnius,
6. Al-Obaedi, J., “Investigation the Effect of Speed Humps on
Merging Time of U-turn Traffic” Ain Shams Engineering
Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, (2018), 1-4.   
7. Litman, T., “Traffic Calming Benefits, Costs and Equity
Impacts”, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, (1999).  
8. Shwaly, S., Amal, A.-A. and Zakaria, M.H., "Public evaluation of
speed humps performance and effectiveness", Civil Engineering
Journal, Vol. 4, No. 6, (2018), 1206-1222. 
9. US Department of Transportation, “Practical Guide for Quality
Management of Pavement Condition Data Collection”, Federal
Highway Administration, (2013). 
10. Setyawan, A., Nainggolan, J. and Budiarto, A., “Predicting the
Remaining Service Life of Road Using Pavement Condition
Index”, Procedia Engineering, Vol 125, No. 1, (2015), 417-423.  
11. Elhadidy, A. A., El-Badawy, S. M. & Elbeltagi, E. E.  “A
simplified pavement condition index regression model for
pavement evaluation”, International Journal of Pavement
Engineering, (2019). 
12. Zafar, M., Shah, S., Memon, M., Rind, T. amd Soomro, M.,
“Condition Survey for Evaluation of Pavement Condition Index
of a Highway”, Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 5, No. 6 (2019),
13. Shahnazari, H., Tutunchian, M., Mashayekhi, M. and Amini, A.,
“Application of Soft Computing for Prediction of Pavement
Condition Index”, Journal of Transportation Engineering,
Vol.138, No. 12, (2012), 1495-1506. 
14. Abdel-Wahed, T. A. and Hashim, I.H., “Effect of speed hump
characteristics on pavement condition”. Journal of Traffic and
Transportation Engineering (English edition), Vol. 4, No. 1
(2017), 103-110. 
15. Bekheet, W., "Short term performance and effect of speed humps
on pavement condition of Alexandria governorate roads",
Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol. 53, No. 4, (2014), 855861.

16. Gedik, A., Bilgin, E., Lav, A. H., and Artan, R.,  “An investigation
into the effect of parabolic speed hump profiles on ride comfort
and driving safety under variable vehicle speeds: A campus
experience”, Sustainable Cities and Society, Vol. 45, (2019),
17. ASTM D6433, "Standard Practice for Roads and Parking Lots
Pavement Condition Index Surveys"-ASTM 2016. 
18. Shahin, M. Y., “Pavement management for airport, roads and
parking lots”, 2nd Edition (2005), Springer, New York.