Design and Parameters Optimization of Pteris vittata Automatic Sowing Machine for Phytoremediation

Document Type : Original Article


1 College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

2 College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang Institute of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Hangzhou, China


In view of the uneven artificial sowing, low sowing, as well as the fact that the existing seeders cannot meet the sowing requirements of Pteris vittata, this paper designed an automatic plug seeder by using the method of spraying and sowing after mixing spores and water. In order to obtain the optimum working parameters of the seeder, response surface method (RSM) was employed to design the experiments and evaluate the results with the purpose of optimizing parameters for improving spraying uniformity. The parameters such as the distance between the nozzle and plug and the nozzle angle and transmission speed were selected, and then the regression equation of spraying uniformity was established. The results showed that the influence of various factors on spraying uniformity coefficient from high to low were nozzle angle, distance between the nozzle and plug and transmission speed. Through the experimental analysis, it can be concluded that when the distance between the nozzle and plug was 11.63 cm, the nozzle angle and the transmission speed were 79.23° and 0.21 m/s, respectively; the seeding uniformity coefficient was the largest, 83.43%. The verification test results indicated that the optimized result was reliable. This study can provide reference for the development of micro seed seeder.


1. Singh, R., Singh, S., Parihar, P., Singh, V.P. and Prasad, S. M.,
“Arsenic contamination, consequences and remediation
techniques: a review”, Ecotoxicology and environmental safety,
Vol. 112, (2015), 247–270.  
2. Tarvainen, T., Albanese, S., Birke, M., Poňavič, M., Reimann, C.
and Team, T. G. P., “Arsenic in agricultural and grazing land soils
of Europe”, Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 28, (2013), 2–10.  
3. Ji, D.L., Meng, F.S., Xue, H., Guo, J.H., Wang, Y.Y. and Yang,
Q., “Situation and prospect of soil arsenic pollution and its
remediation techniques at home and abroad”, Journal of
Environmental Engineering Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, (2016),
4. Ma, L.Q., Komar, K.M., Tu, C., Zhang, W., Cai, Y. and
Kennelley, E. D., “A fern that hyperaccumulates arsenic”,
Nature, Vol. 409, No. 6820, (2001), 579–579.  
5. Chen, T., Wei, C., Huang, Z., Huang, Q., Lu, Q. and Fan, Z.,
“Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and its arsenic
accumulation”, Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 11,
(2002), 902–905.  
6. Zhengbin, Z., Junyou, W., Lijing, L., Zhongjun, L., and Wei, W.,
“Advance Research of Tray Precision Sowing Equipment”,
Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research, Vol. 37, No.
8, (2015), 1–5.  
7. Lou, J., Li, J. and Zhu, P. A., “Design and test on growing point
removal mechanism of melon vegetable grafting stock”,
Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural
Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 23, (2016), 64–69.  
8. Chi, Y., Wang, Y., Li, M., Ren, J. and Chi, Y., “Numerical
simulation and experimental study on eggshell membrane
separation device”, International Journal of Agricultural and
Biological Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 2, (2019), 173–183.  
9. Dou, H.S., Jiang, W., Zhang, Y.L., Zhu, Z.C., Cui, B.L. and Li,
Y., “Flow instability in centrifugal pump based on energy gradient
theory”, Nongye Jixie Xuebao/ Transactions of the Chinese
Society for Agricultural Machinery, Vol. 45, No. 12, (2014), 88–
10. Han, W., Cao, P. and Liu, W., “Raindrop characteristics of
sprinklers for artificial rainfall system”, Nongye Jixie Xuebao/
Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural
Machinery, Vol. 45, No. 12, (2014), 56–61.  
11. Lyu, M., Zhang, Z., and Liu, J., “Experimental study on hydraulic
performance and combined uniformity of micro sprinklers”,
Paiguan Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao/Journal of Drainage and
Irrigation Machinery Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 7, (2017), 641–
12. Wu, K., Li, J., Chen, J. and Zhu, S., “The Study of Stirring
Influence Factors on Pteris Vittata L. Spore Solution for Sowing
Operation based on CFD”, In 2019 ASABE Annual International
Meeting, American Society of Agricultural and Biological
Engineers, (2019), 1–5.  
13. Kouchak, Y. Z. and Alemzadeh, I., “Lipase Catalyzed
Incorporation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid by Transesterification
into Sunflower Oil Applying Immobilized Lipase (Lipozyme
Thermomyces lanuginosus and Rhizomucor mehei)”,
International Journal of Engineering - Transaction A: Basics,
Vol. 29, No. 4, (2016), 436–443.  
14. Mahmood Ali, S., “Optimization of Centrifugal Casting
Parameters of AlSi Alloy by using the Response Surface
Methodology”, International Journal of Engineering -
Transaction B: Applications, Vol. 32, No. 11, (2019), 1516–
15. Khorami, M., Houseinpour, M., Younesi, H. and Najafpour, G.,
“Lipase Production in Solid State Fermentation using Aspergillus
niger: Response Surface Methodology”, International Journal
of Engineering - Transaction C: Aspects, Vol. 25, No. 3, (2012),
16. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R., Amiri, M. and Azizmohammadi, R.,
“Solving a redundancy allocation problem by a hybrid multiobjective imperialist competitive algorithm”, International 
Journal of Engineering - Transaction C: Aspects, Vol. 26, No.
9, (2013), 1031–1042.  
17. Msukwa, V.J., Munthali, C.R.Y., Nyoka, B.I. and Missanjo, E.,
“Phenology of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst.
Provenances”, Emerging Science Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, (2019),
18. Li, P., Ren, Z., Shao, K., Tan, H. and Niu, Z., “Research on
Distinguishing Fish Meal Quality Using Different Characteristic
Parameters Based on Electronic Nose Technology”, Sensors, Vol.
19, No. 2146, (2019), 1–15.  
19. Chen, Z., Duan, F., Fan, Y. and Huang, X., “Static simulation on
water distribution characteristics of overlap area and whole
spraying area for sprinkler”, Transactions of the Chinese Society
of Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 33, No. 16, (2017), 104–111.  
20. Xiaodong, C., Zhichao, H., Bing, W., Zhaoting, Y., Baoliang, P.,
and Lianglong, H., “Design and parameter optimization of sweetpotato-stalk separator for single row sweet potato combine harvester”, Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE), Vol. 35, No. 14, (2019), 12–21.