Analysis of Resistance Spot Welding Process Parameters Effect on the Weld Quality of Three-steel Sheets Used in Automotive Industry: Experimental and Finite Element Simulation

Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology,

2 Department of Mechanical and Instrumental Engineering, Academy of Engineering, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

3 School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

4 IKCO, 14th Km, Karaj Highway, Tehran, Iran


In the present research, the effects of spot-welding process parameters on the nugget diameter and electrode penetration depth of spot-welded joints were investigated. To achieve this, a spot-welded joint of three-thin sheet low carbon steels (same thicknesses of 0.8 mm) was simulated as an electerical-thermal-mechanical coupling of 3D finite element model. After validating the finite element simulation presented in this study by comparison with the experimental results for the spot diameter, various cases of spot welds were analyzed based on the design on experiment (i.e., Taguchi method). Six variables including electrode force, electric current, and quadrilateral times (squeeze, up-slope, welding time, and hold) at three different levels were considered as Taguchi algorithm inputs. The results of Taguchi sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters of electrical current (22 %) and welding time (17 %) are the most effective factors on the nugget diameter. Next, Multiple Regression Technique (MRT) was used to present a new equation for calculating spot diameter via the process parameters. The findings of this study showed that the difference between FE results and MRT for predicting spot diameter is less than 13%. Eventually, Response Surface Method (RSM) was utilized to determine the interaction effects of process parameters on the spot weld quality.