%0 Journal Article
%T A Characteristic-based Numerical Simulation of Water-titanium Dioxide Nano-fluid in Closed Domains
%J International Journal of Engineering
%I Materials and Energy Research Center
%Z 1025-2495
%A Adibi, Tohid
%A Razavi, Seyed Esmaeil
%A Adibi, Omid
%D 2020
%\ 01/01/2020
%V 33
%N 1
%P 158-163
%! A Characteristic-based Numerical Simulation of Water-titanium Dioxide Nano-fluid in Closed Domains
%K Titanium dioxide
%K nano-fluid
%K Nusselt Number
%K friction factor
%K Numerical method
%R 10.5829/ije.2020.33.01a.18
%X A new characteristic-based method is developed and used for solving the mixed and forced convection problems. The nano-fluid flow with heat transfer is simulated with a novel characteristic-based scheme in closed domains with different aspect ratios. For this purpose, a FORTRAN code has been written and developed. Water as a pure fluid and water-titanium dioxide as a nano-fluid were considered. The governing equations are solved by the finite volume utilizing a characteristic-based scheme for the convective fluxes. The simulation is done at Grashof numbers from 100 to 104, Reynolds numbers from 100 to 1000, and volume fractions of nano-particles from 0% to 10%. Streamlines, isotherms, friction factor, and mean Nusselt number are obtained in various conditions. The convective behavior of nano-fluid is explored as a function of several parameters, such as Grashof number and geometrical parameters. Results indicate that the mean Nusselt number for the nanofluid is up to 23% more than that of pure water.
%U https://www.ije.ir/article_101159_ee467ad8a30e10f156d90c5fc816a9fc.pdf