Application of the Avrami Theory for Wax Crystallisation of Synthetic Crude Oil


1 Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia

2 Centre for Advanced and Professional Education, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

3 Biomass Processing Laboratory, Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Sustainable Living, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

4 Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kelantan, Malaysia


Wax crystallisation and deposition from offshore reservoirs have been causing serious problems such as plugged pipelines and reduced production flow rates. This issue is receiving more attention from the researchers and for commercial applications due to the shift in trend from using offshore production facilities to pipelines utilization. The aim of this study is the implementation of the Avrami theory to comprehend the mechanism of wax crystallisation to reveal the morphology of wax crystal using gravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The experiment values obtained from the Avrami’s theory for both gravimetric and DSC techniques shows that the crystals were one-dimensional with rod-like structures. 


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