Effect of Polyethylene Glycol and Triton X-100 on the Enzymatic Treatment of Bisphenol A


1 Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran

2 Biochemical and Bioenvironmental Research Centre, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran

3 Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran


The current study includes the screening of indigenous extracellular laccase producing fungus from the soil, identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporiumspecies.The selected strain was applied under the optimized condition for the production of  laccase in the solid state fermentation. The effect of polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 on the enhancement of enzyme activity and biocatalytic removal of bisphenol A using laccase produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated at 40°C, initial laccase activity 3U/mL and initial bisphenol A concentration 2 mM after 3 h of treatment. Bisphenol A concentration was evaluated using a colorimetric assay in the presence of 4-AAP. The effect of PEG molecular weight on BPA removal was determined using PEG with a molecular weight between 1500 and 20000.The results showed that the addition of polyethylene glycol and Triton X-100 to the reaction mixture greatly increased the laccase activity and the residual enzyme activity, but no significant changes were found in the removal of bisphenol A. The maximum removal of BPA was obtained at pH 8.0 and 40° C in 90 mg/L of PEG-1500 and 50, 100 mg/L of PEG-6000, while laccase activity at all concentrations of PEG-1500 and 6000 increased.


1.     Watanabe, C., Kashiwada, A., Matsuda, K. and Yamada, K., "Soybean peroxidase‐catalyzed treatment and removal of bpa and bisphenol derivatives from aqueous solutions", Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy,  Vol. 30, No. 1, (2011), 81-91.

2.     Geens, T., Aerts, D., Berthot, C., Bourguignon, J.-P., Goeyens, L., Lecomte, P., Maghuin-Rogister, G., Pironnet, A.-M., Pussemier, L. and Scippo, M.-L., "A review of dietary and non-dietary exposure to bisphenol-a", Food and Chemical Toxicology,  Vol. 50, No. 10, (2012), 3725-3740.

3.     Corrales, J., Kristofco, L.A., Steele, W.B., Yates, B.S., Breed, C.S., Williams, E.S. and Brooks, B.W., "Global assessment of bisphenol a in the environment: Review and analysis of its occurrence and bioaccumulation", Dose-Response,  Vol. 13, No. 3, (2015), doi: 10.1177/1559325815598308.

4.     Jiang, X., Wu, Y., Wang, P., Li, H. and Dong, W., "Degradation of bisphenol a in aqueous solution by persulfate activated with ferrous ion", Environmental Science and Pollution Research,  Vol. 20, No. 7, (2013), 4947-4953.

5.     Taghavi, K., Naghipour, D., Mohagheghian, A. and Moslemzadeh, M., "Photochemical degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solutions by fe2+/peroxydisulfate/uv process", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 30, No. 1, (2017) 15-22.

6.     Masomi, M., Ghoreyshi, A., Najafpour, G. and Mohamed, A.J.I.J.E.T.A.B., "Adsorption of phenolic compounds onto the activated carbon synthesized from pulp and paper mill sludge: Equilibrium isotherm, kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism studies", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 27, No., (2014), 1485-1494.

7.     Akhlaghian, F. and Sohrabi, S.J.I.J.o.E.-T.A.B., "Fe/tio2 catalyst for photodegradation of phenol in water",  International Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics, Vol. 28, No. 4, (2015), 499-506.

8.     Ghobadi Nejad, Z., Borghei, S. and Yaghmaei, S., "Kinetic studies of bisphenol a in aqueous solutions by enzymatic treatment", International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology,  Vol., No., (2018), 1-12.

9.     Modaressi, K., Taylor, K.E., Bewtra, J. and Biswas, N., "Laccase-catalyzed removal of bisphenol-a from water: Protective effect of peg on enzyme activity", Water Research,  Vol. 39, No. 18, (2005), 4309-4316.

10.   Abdel-Raheem, A. and Shearer, C., "Extracellular enzyme production byfreshwater ascomycetes", Fungal Diversity , Vol.,11 (2002), 1-19.

11.   Khanongnuch, C., "Ligninolytic enzymes from tropical endophytic xylariaceae",  Fungal Diversity Vol. 13, (2003), 209-219.

12.   Piscitelli, A., Giardina, P., Lettera, V., Pezzella, C., Sannia, G. and Faraco, V., "Induction and transcriptional regulation of laccases in fungi", Current Genomics,  Vol. 12, No. 2, (2011), 104-112.

13.   Kim, Y.-J. and Nicell, J.A., "Laccase-catalyzed oxidation of bisphenol a with the aid of additives", Process Biochemistry,  Vol. 41, No. 5, (2006), 1029-1037.

14.   Adlercreutz, P., "Immobilisation and application of lipases in organic media", Chemical Society Reviews,  Vol. 42, No. 15, (2013), 6406-6436.

15.   Kimura, Y., Takahashi, A., Kashiwada, A. and Yamada, K., "Removal of bisphenol a and its derivatives from aqueous medium through laccase-catalyzed treatment enhanced by addition of polyethylene glycol", Environmental Technology,  Vol. 37, No. 14, (2016), 1733-1744.

16.   Asilian, H., Jonidi, A., Kamarehie, B. and Mousavi, S., "Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in real waste transformer oil using a modified household microwave oven in presence of sodium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions C: Aspects,  Vol. 29, No. 9, (2016), 1208-1213.

17.   Guanglei, J., Zhang, H., Huang, F. and Huang, X., "Effects of nonionic surfactant triton x-100 on the laccase-catalyzed conversion of bisphenol a", Journal of Environmental Sciences,  Vol. 21, No. 11, (2009), 1486-1490.

18.   Azimi, M., Nafissi-Varcheh, N., Mogharabi, M., Faramarzi, M.A. and Aboofazeli, R., "Study of laccase activity and stability in the presence of ionic and non-ionic surfactants and the bioconversion of indole in laccase-tx-100 system", Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic,  Vol. 126, No., (2016), 69-75.

19.   Forootanfar, H., Faramarzi, M.A., Shahverdi, A.R. and Yazdi, M.T., "Purification and biochemical characterization of extracellular laccase from the ascomycete paraconiothyrium variabile", Bioresource Technology,  Vol. 102, No. 2, (2011), 1808-1814.

20.   Samadi, S., Mohammadi, M. and Najafpour Darzi, G., Transactions B: Applications, "Production of single cell protein from sugarcane bagasse by saccharomyces cerevisiae in tray bioreactor",  International Journal of Engineering- Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 29, No. 8, (2016), 1029-1036.

21.   Mathur, G., Nigam, R., Jaiswal, A. and Kumar, C., "Bioprocess parameter optimization for laccase production in solid state fermentation", International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering Research,  Vol. 4, No., (2013), 521-530.

22.   Vaseghi, Z. and Najafpour, G., "A comparison on lipase production from soybean meal and sugarcane bagasse in solid state fermentation using rhizopus oryzae", International Journal of Engineering-Transactions B: Applications,  Vol. 27, No. 2, (2013), 171-176.

23.   Ballesteros-Gómez, A., Rubio, S. and Pérez-Bendito, D., "Analytical methods for the determination of bisphenol a in food", Journal of Chromatography A,  Vol. 1216, No. 3, (2009), 449-469.

24.   Patel, H., Gupte, A. and Gupte, S., "Effect of different culture conditions and inducers on production of laccase by a basidiomycete fungal isolate pleurotus ostreatus hp-1 under solid state fermentation", BioResources,  Vol. 4, No. 1, (2009), 268-284.

25.   Koduri, R.S. and Tien, M.J.J.o.B.C., "Oxidation of guaiacol by lignin peroxidase role of veratryl alcohol",  Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 270, No. 38, (1995), 22254-22258.

26.   Ricupito, A., Del Pozzo, G., Diano, N., Grano, V., Portaccio, M., Marino, M., Bolli, A., Galluzzo, P., Bontempo, P. and Mita, L., "Effect of bisphenol a with or without enzyme treatment on the proliferation and viability of mcf-7 cells", Environment International,  Vol. 35, No. 1, (2009), 21-26.

27.   Kurniawati, S. and Nicell, J.A., "Characterization of trametes versicolor laccase for the transformation of aqueous phenol", Bioresource Technology,  Vol. 99, No. 16, (2008), 7825-7834.

28.   Nadeem, A., Baig, S. and Sheikh, N., "Mycothecnological production of laccase by pleurotus ostreatus-p1 and its inhibition study", The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences,  Vol. 24, No. 2, (2014), 492-502.

29.   Antonsen, K.P. and Hoffman, A.S., Water structure of peg solutions by differential scanning calorimetry measurements, in Poly (ethylene glycol) chemistry. 1992, Springer.15-28.

30.   Kulys, J., Vidziunaite, R., Schneider, P.J.E. and technology, m., "Laccase-catalyzed oxidation of naphthol in the presence of soluble polymers",  Enzyme and microbial technology,Vol. 32, No. 3-4, (2003), 455-463.

31.   Xia, J., Dubin, P.L. and Kokufuta, E., "Dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering of a water-soluble complex formed between pepsin and polyethylene glycol", Macromolecules,  Vol. 26, No. 24, (1993), 6688-6690.

32.   Biasutti, M.A., Abuin, E.B., Silber, J.J., Correa, N.M. and Lissi, E.A., "Kinetics of reactions catalyzed by enzymes in solutions of surfactants", Advances in Colloid and Interface Science,  Vol. 136, No. 1-2, (2008), 1-24.

33.   Zhang, Y., Zeng, Z., Zeng, G., Liu, X., Liu, Z., Chen, M., Liu, L., Li, J. and Xie, G., "Effect of triton x-100 on the removal of aqueous phenol by laccase analyzed with a combined approach of experiments and molecular docking", Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces,  Vol. 97, No., (2012), 7-12.