Mechanical Behaviour of Nano-material (Al2O3) Stabilized Soft Soil

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Srinagar, J&K, India

Abstract

Rapid urbanization and requirement of infrastructure, stable construction sites are not available. Therefore, there is a dire need for improvement of marginal soils to be used as a construction material. However, weak soils comprise of saturated clays, fine silts, and loose sand, which are susceptible to failure and pose problems of stability. Therefore, this research aims to study the strength and microstructural behavior of soft soils treated with nano-alumina (Al2O3) additive. In this study, Al2O3 of different percentages (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) by dry weight of soil was added to a clayey soil and subjected to compaction and unconfined compression strength tests. The compaction tests showed that nano-Al2O3 (< 2.0%) stabilized soils exhibit higher unit weight and lower water content compared to untreated soils. This may be attributed due to the fact that nano-materials possess higher unit weight compared to untreated soils and these materials occupy the pore spaces in-between the soil grains, which reduce soil porosity and increase the shear strength. The unconfined compressive strength test on cured treated soil specimens showed a significant increase in shear strength on the addition of nano-alumina. The scanning electron microscopic analysis on untreated and treated soil specimens showed that untreated soil samples exhibit a compact array of clay grains and nano-material treated soil display closely packed and condensed fine structure, which authenticates an increase in shear strength. Thus, with the addition of Al2O3, there has been a significant improvement in the engineering properties of soft soils.

Keywords


Munfakh, G.A. “Ground improvement engineering-the State of the US practice: Part 1- Methods.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Ground Improvement, Vol. 1, No. 4, (1997), 193-214, DOI: 10.1680/gi.1997.010402
Hayal, A. L., Al-Gharrawi, A. M. B. and Fattah, M. Y. “Collapse Problem Treatment of Gypseous Soil by Nanomaterials.” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 33, No. 9, (2020), 1737-1742, doi: 10.5829/ije.2020.33.09c.06.
Mir, B.A. “Some studies on the effect of fly ash and lime on physical and mechanical properties of expansive clay.” International Journal of Civil Engineering-Transaction B: Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 13, (2015), 203-212, DOI: 10.22068/IJCE.13.3.203.
Mir, B. A. and Sridharan, A. “Mechanical behavior of fly ash treated expansive soil.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, Vol. 172, No. 1, (2019), 12-24, DOI: 10.1680/jgrim.16.00024
Mir, B. A., Basit,  M. Shah and Shah, F. A. “Some model studies on reinforced dredged soil for sustainable environment.” In A. Kallel et al. (eds.): Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the Euro-Mediterranean and Surrounding Regions- Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation, (2018), DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-70548-4_494.
Majeed, Z. H. and Taha, M.R. “The Effects of Using Nanomaterials to Improvement Soft Soils.”  Saudi Journal of Engineering and Technology, Scholars Middle East Publishers Dubai, United Arab Emirates, (2016), 58-63, DOI: 10.21276/sjeat.2016.1.3.1.
Izadia, M., Tabatabaee Ghomi, and Pircheraghib, M. G. “Mechanical Strength Improvement of Mud Motor’s Elastomer by Nano Clay and Prediction the Working Life via Strain Energy.” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 32, No. 2, (2019), 338-345, DOI:10.5829/ije.2019.32.02b.20.
Rezaei, G. and Arab, N.B.M. "Investigation on tensile strength of friction stir welded joints in PP/EPDM/clay nanocomposites." International Journal of Engineering-Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 28, No. 9, (2015), 1383-1391,DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2015.28.09c.17
Zhang, G. “Soil nanoparticles and their influence on engineering properties of soils.” Advances in Measurement and Modeling of Soil Behavior, New Peaks in Geotechnics, GSP 173, (2007), 1-13, DOI:10.1061/40917(236)37.
Majeed, Z. H. and Taha, M. R. “Effect of nanomaterial treatment on geotechnical properties of a Penang soft soil.” Asian Scientific Research, Vol. 2, No. 11, (2012), 587–592, http://aessweb.com/journal-detail.php?id=5003.
Zohair, M, Mangnejo, D. A. and Mangi, N. “Analysis for stabilization of soil slope in silty soil with replacement of soil cement.” Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 5, No. 10, (2019), 2233-2246, DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091407.
Ekeleme, A.C. and Agunwamba, J. C. “Experimental determination of dispersion coefficient in soil.” Emerging Science Journal, Vol. 2,No. 4, (2018), 213-218, DOI:10.28991/esj-2018-01145.
Kassou, F., Bouziyane, J..B., Ghafiri, A. and Sabihi, A. “Slope stability of embankments on soft soil improved with vertical drains.” Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 6,No. 1, (2020), 164-173, DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091461
Khalkhali, A. and Daghighi, S. “Optimum design of a coir fiber biocomposite tube reinforced with nano silica and nano clay powder.” International Journal of Engineering, Transactions C: Aspects, Vol. 30, No. 12, (2017), 1894-1902, DOI: 10.5829/ije.2017.30.12c.11
Mosalman, S., Rashahmadi, S. and Hasanzadeh, R. "The effect of TiO2 nano particles on mechanical properties of poly methyl metacrylate nanocomposites." Internation Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, Vol. 30, No. 5, (2017), 807-813,DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ije.2017.30.05b.22
Jamal, M. A. Alsharef, Taha,M. R., Firoozi, A.A. and Govindasamy P. “Potential of using nanocarbons to stabilize weak soils.” Applied and Environmental Soil Science, Vol. 2016, 5060531, (2016), 1-9, DOI: 10.1155/2016/5060531.
Norazlan, K., Arshad, M.F., Mazidah, M., Kamaruzzaman, M and Kamarudin, F. “The Properties of Nano-Kaolin Mixed with Kaolin.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 19, (2014), 4247-4255, Bund. Q.
Fadzil, M.A., Sidek M. N. M., Norliyati, M.A., Hamidah, M. S., Wan-Ibrahim M.H., and Assrul, R.Z.  “Characterization of kaolin as nano material for high quality construction.” MATEC Web of Conferences, Vol. 103, No. 7, (2017), 1-9, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20171030 ISCEE 2016 9019.
Pham, H. and Nguyen, Q.P. “Effect of silica nanoparticles on clay swelling and aqueous stability of nanoparticle dispersions.” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2137, (2014), 1-11, DOI: 10.1007/s11051-013-2137-9.
Zhang, G., Germaine, J. T., Whittle, A. J. and Ladd, C. “Index properties of a highly weathered old alluvium.” Géotechnique, Vol. 54, No. 7, (2004), 441–451, DOI:10.1680/geot.2004.54.7.441.
Moradi, G. and Seyedi S. “Effect of Soils Hydraulic Conductivity on Colloidal Nano-Silica Permeation.” Biological Forum – An International Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, (2015), 493-497, ISSN: 2249-3239.
Niroumand, H., Zain M.F.M. and Alhosseini, S.N. “The influence of nano-clays on compressive strength of earth bricks as sustainable materials.” Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 89, (2013), 862-865, DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.945.
Lee, J., Mahendra, S. and Alvarez, P. “Nanomaterials in the Construction Industry: A Review of their Applications and Environmental Health and Safety Considerations”. ACS Nano, Vol. 4, No. 7), (2010), 3580-3590, DOI: 10.1021/nn100866w
Arabani,M., Haghi,A. K., Sani, A. M. and Kamboozia,  N. “Use of nano clay for improvement the microstructure and mechanical properties of soil stabilized by cement”. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Nanostructures (ICNS4), Kish Island, Iran, (2012), 1552-1554.
Çelik, S., Alireza, N. and Mehdi,  J. B. “Effect of nanoparticles on geotechnical engineering properties of granular soils by using injection method.” Journal of  Biochcemica Technology, (2019), 56-60, ISSN: 0794-2328.
Nazari, A., Shadi, R., Sharin, R., Shamekhi, S. F. and  Khademno, A. “Mechanical properties of cement mortar with Al2O3 nanoparticles.” Journal of American Science, Vol. 5(7), (2009). 94-97, http://www.americanscience.org.
Jha, K. K. “An energy based nanomechanical properties evaluation method for cementitious materials.” Ph.D. Dissertation, (2012), Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
Scrivener, K. L. “Nanotechnology and Cementitious Materials” In: Bittnar Z., Bartos P.J.M., Němeček J., Šmilauer V., Zeman J. (eds), Nanotechnology in Construction 3, (2009), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-00980-8_4
Jahromi, S. G.  and Zahedi,  H.  “Investigating the effecting of nano aluminum on mechanical and volumetric properties of clay.” Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 50, No. 3, (2018), 597-606, DOI: 10.22060/ceej.2017.12241.5157.
Khalid, N., Arshad, M. F., Mukri, M., Mohamad, K. and Kamarudin, F. “Influence of nano-soil particles in soft soil stabilization.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 2, (2015), 731-738, (2015).
Bahmani, S. H., Huat,  B. B., Asadi, A. and Farzadnia, N. “Stabilization of residual soil using SiO2 nanoparticles and cement.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 64, (2014), 350-359, DOI:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.04.086.
Ghasabkolaei, N., Janalizadeh, A., Jahanshahi, M., Roshan N. and  Ghassemi, S. E. “Physical and geotechnical properties of cementtreated clayey soil using silica nanoparticles: an experimental study.” The European Physical Journal Plus, Vol. 131, No. 5, (2016), 1-11, DOI 10.1140/epjp/i2016-16134-3.
Kong, R., Zhang, F., Gonghui, W. and Jianbing, P. “Stabilization of loess using nano-SiO2.” Materials, Vol. 11, No. 6, (2018). 1014, DOI:10.3390/ma11061014.
Reddy, H. S.  and Mir,  B. A. (2020).  “Some studies on microstructural behaviour and unconfined compressive strength of soft soil treated with SiO2 nanoparticles.” Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, Vol. 5, No. 1, 34, DOI:10.1007/s41062-020-0283-3.
BIS: 2720-Part 1 (1980) Indian Standard Code for preparation of soil samples. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
BIS: 2720-Part 3(1) (1980). Method of test for soils: Determination of specific gravity of fine grained soils. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
BIS: 2720-Part 4 (1985). Method of test for soils: Determination of grain size distribution. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
BIS: 2720-Part 5 (1985). Method of test for soils: Determination of Atterberg limits. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
BIS: 2720-Part 7 (1980). Method of test for soils: Determination of Water Content-Dry Density Relation Using Light Compaction. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
BIS 2720-10 (1973). Methods of test for soils, Part 10: Determination of shear strength parameter by Unconfined compression test. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
BIS 2720-13 (1986). Methods of test for soils, Part 13: Determination of shear strength parameter by Direct shear test. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi.
Majeed, Z. H., Taha, M. R. and Jawad I. T. “Stabilization of soft soil using nano-materials.” Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, (2014), 503-509, DOI: 10.19026/rjaset.8.999.
Mir, B. A. and Reddy, S. H. “Enhancement in Shear Strength Characteristics of Soft Soil by Using Nanomaterials.” Sustainable Environment and Infrastructure, (2020), Springer, Cham, 421-435, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-51350-4_39
Gillott, J. E. “Study of the fabric of fine-grained sediments with the scanning electron microscope.” Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 39, No. 1, (1969), 90-105, DOI:10.1306/74D71BEA-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D.
Kamruzzaman, A. H. M., Chew, S. H. and Lee, F.H. “Microstructure of cement-treated Singapore marine clay.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Ground Improvement, ICE, UK, Vol. 10, No. 3, (2006), 113-123, DOI: 10.1680/grim.2006.10.3.113.