Effect of Water Absorption on the Tensile Characteristics of Natural/ Synthetic Fabrics Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Production Engineering and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

2 Basic Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt


The effect of water absorption and swelling thickness on the tensile properties of flax/sisal/carbon/glass fabrics reinforced by unsaturated polyester-based hybrid composites was evaluated. Hybrid composites reinforced with different natural and synthetic fiber configurations have been processed using the Hand lay-up (HLU) technique. Water absorption test was carried out by immersing specimens in distilled water for different lengths of time, up to 1344 hours, and showed slight enhancement of water absorption for fibers configuration [C/C/C/C/C/C] up to 1.45%, but great enhancement of water absorption for fiber configuration [S/S/S/S/S/S] up to 14%. The tensile strength of samples before and after immersion in distilled water was evaluated. This result showed that the tensile strength of fibers configuration [C/C/F/F/C/C] is approaching fibers configuration [C/C/C/C/C/C] at dry condition. Fractured cross-section morphology of composites was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the fibers/matrix interface before and after hydro aging. The reduction in tensile strength due to water penetrating is slight for hybrid composite with synthetic fibers at the outer layer, but huge for hybrid composite with natural fibers at outer layer.


1.     Boopalan, M., Niranjanaa, M. and Umapathy, M., "Study on the mechanical properties and thermal properties of jute and banana fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites", Composites Part B: Engineering,  Vol. 51, (2013), 54-57. doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.02.033
2.     Prasad, A.R. and Rao, K.M., "Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polyester composites: Jowar, sisal and bamboo", Materials & Design,  Vol. 32, No. 8-9, (2011), 4658-4663. doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.03.015
3.     Yan, L., Chouw, N. and Jayaraman, K., "Flax fibre and its composites–a review", Composites Part B: Engineering,  Vol. 56, (2014), 296-317. doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.08.014
4.     Venkateshwaran, N., Elayaperumal, A. and Sathiya, G., "Prediction of tensile properties of hybrid-natural fiber composites", Composites Part B: Engineering,  Vol. 43, No. 2, (2012), 793-796. doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.08.023
5.     Al-Maharma, A.Y. and Al-Huniti, N., "Critical review of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of moisture absorption treatments used for natural composites", Journal of Composites Science,  Vol. 3, No. 1, (2019), 27. doi.10.3390/jcs3010027
6.     Jawaid, M. and Khalil, H.A., "Cellulosic/synthetic fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: A review", Carbohydrate Polymers,  Vol. 86, No. 1, (2011), 1-18. doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.04.043
7.     Sanjay, M., Arpitha, G., Laxmana Naik, L., Gopalakrishna, K. and Yogesh, B., "Studies on mechanical properties of banana/e-glass fabrics reinforced polyester hybrid composites", Journal of Material and Environmental Science,  Vol. 7, No. 9, (2016), 3179-3192.
8.     El-Menshawy, O., El-Sissy, A., El-Wazery, M. and Elsad, R., "Electrical and mechanical performance of hybrid and non-hybrid composites", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics,  Vol. 32, No. 4, (2019), 580-586. doi: 10.5829/ije.2019.32.04a.16
9.     Jesthi, D.K. and Nayak, R.K., "Evaluation of mechanical properties and morphology of seawater aged carbon and glass fiber reinforced polymer hybrid composites", Composites Part B: Engineering,  Vol. 174, (2019), 106980. doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.106980
10.   Sivakumar, M., Ranjith, M., Sasikumar, S., Prabhu, D., Sabarish, C. and Sengottaiyan, P., "Mechanical properties and sem analysis of glass/nylon/jute reinforced epoxy hybrid composites", International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology,  Vol. 7, (2016), 194-207.
11.   Braga, R. and Magalhaes Jr, P., "Analysis of the mechanical and thermal properties of jute and glass fiber as reinforcement epoxy hybrid composites", Materials Science and Engineering: C,  Vol. 56, (2015), 269-273. doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.06.031
12.   Fiore, V., Valenza, A. and Di Bella, G., "Mechanical behavior of carbon/flax hybrid composites for structural applications", Journal of Composite Materials,  Vol. 46, No. 17, (2012), 2089-2096. doi: 10.1177/0021998311429884
13.   Gupta, M.K., Srivastava, R., Kumar, S., Gupta, S. and Nahak, B., "Mechanical and water absorption properties of hybrid sisal/glass fibre reinforced epoxy composite", American Journal of Polymer Science & Engineering,  Vol. 3, No. 2, (2015), 208-219.
14.   Gupta, M. and Deep, V., "Effect of water absorption and stacking sequences on the properties of hybrid sisal/glass fibre reinforced polyester composite", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications,  Vol. 233, No. 10, (2019), 2045-2056. doi: 10.1177/1464420718811867
15.   Dhakal, H., Zhang, Z., Guthrie, R., MacMullen, J. and Bennett, N., "Development of flax/carbon fibre hybrid composites for enhanced properties", Carbohydrate Polymers,  Vol. 96, No. 1, (2013), 1-8. doi.10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.03.074 
16.   Girisha, C., Sanjeevamurthy, G. and Srinivas, G., "Sisal/coconut coir natural fibers-epoxy composites: Water absorption and mechanical properties", International Journal of Innovative Technology,  Vol. 2, (2012), 166-170.
17.   Zamri, M.H., Akil, H.M., Bakar, A.A., Ishak, Z.A.M. and Cheng, L.W., "Effect of water absorption on pultruded jute/glass fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites", Journal of Composite Materials,  Vol. 46, No. 1, (2012), 51-61. doi.org/10.1177/0021998311410488
18.   Sathish, S., Kumaresan, K., Prabhu, L. and Vigneshkumar, N., "Experimental investigation on volume fraction of mechanical and physical properties of flax and bamboo fibers reinforced hybrid epoxy composites", Polymers and Polymer Composites,  Vol. 25, No. 3, (2017), 229-236. doi.10.1177/096739111702500309
19.   Gopal, S., Aravinth, S., Dinesh, C., Gopinath, M. and Jagan, S., "Analysis of mechanical behaviour of sisal, jute, and flax fibre (hybrid) reinforced with epoxy resin composites",  International Journal of Innovation Research Science & Technology Vol.3, (2017), 69-73.
20.   Calabrese, L., Fiore, V., Scalici, T. and Valenza, A., "Experimental assessment of the improved properties during aging of flax/glass hybrid composite laminates for marine applications", Journal of Applied Polymer Science,  Vol. 136, No. 14, (2019), 47203. doi.org/10.1002/app.47203
21.   Saidane, E.H., Scida, D., Assarar, M., Sabhi, H. and Ayad, R., "Hybridisation effect on diffusion kinetic and tensile mechanical behaviour of epoxy based flax–glass composites", Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing,  Vol. 87, (2016), 153-160. doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.04.023
22.   EL-Wazery, M.S., "Mechanical characterizations of basalt-glass-carbon/polyester hybrid composites", International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics,,  Vol. 31, No., (2018), 1139-1145.
23.   EL-Wazery, M., "Mechanical characteristics and novel applications of hybrid polymer composites-a review", Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences,  Vol. 8, No. 2, (2017), 666-675.
24.   Sanjay, M., Arpitha, G. and Yogesha, B., "Study on mechanical properties of natural-glass fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: A review", Materials Today: Proceedings,  Vol. 2, No. 4-5, (2015), 2959-2967.
25.   El-Wazery, M., El-Elamy, M. and Zoalfakar, S., "Mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polyester composites", International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering,  Vol. 14, No. 3, (2017), 121-131.