Determination of Riboflavin by Nanocomposite Modified Carbon Paste Electrode in Biological Fluids using FFT Square Wave Voltammetry

Document Type: Original Article


1 1CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-62500 Brno, Czechia

2 Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 University of Tehran


Herein, fast Fourier transformation square-wave voltammetry (FFT-SWV) as a novel electrochemical determination technique was used to investigate electrochemical behavior and determination of Riboflavin at the surface of a nanocomposite modified carbon paste electrode. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanocomposite containing Samarium oxide (Sm2O3)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) (2:1) to improve detection sensitivity of Riboflavin under optimal experimental conditions. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased by application of discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over the selected potential range and the time window. Obtained cyclic voltammograms demonstrated a diffusion-controlled reversible electron transfer reaction for Riboflavin in phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.2). The peak potential values were pH-dependent, involving the same numbers of protons and electrons. To obtain the maximum sensitivity, some effective parameters such as scan rate (10 mV/s), accumulation time (0.2 s) and potential (+400 mV), frequency (1420 Hz) and amplitude (20 mV) were optimized. As a result, determination of Riboflavin using FFT-SWV showed a linear range of response from 10 to 400 nM (R2=0.9993), with limit of detection of 0.86 nM. An acceptable recovery percent was also obtained for Riboflavin in human plasma samples as a criteria of measurement applicability of the proposed modified electrode.