Lattice Boltzmann Method Application on Headwater at Lata Kinjang Waterfall, Malaysia

Document Type : Original Article


1 Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia

2 School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Bei Tai Ping Zhuang, Haidian Qu, Beijing Shi, China


Headwater accident is a natural phenomenon that occurs in every flow channel, resulting in tremendous incidents that involve vulnerable lives and destruction of its surroundings. This study focuses on simulation of potential headwater accidents at Lata Kinjang waterfall (Perak, Malaysia) with the aim of understanding the behavior of headwater accidents from the hydraulic aspect. By deploying the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for Shallow Water Flow with Turbulence Modeling (LABSWETM), a two-dimensional simulation was carried out to investigate the headwater condition of the study area. The outputs from the LABSWETM model simulation were presented in terms of water height progression and velocity profile. The water-height results showed a decrease in water level within the flow channel and an increase in downstream, while the velocity-profile results revealed an increase in velocity at downstream. Thus, under current hydraulic conditions, Lata Kinjang waterfall has a high potential for the occurrence of headwater accidents. Nonetheless, this study provide suggestions to mitigate the phenomenon efficiently.